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1530: Zentraleuropa nach dem Wiener Kongress

In 1530, Hungry had two kings. Both were elected legitimately, and crowned. Johann SzapolyaiZápolay was crowned with the holy crown of Hungary in November 1526, Ferdinand in November 1527. After his coronation Szapolyai/Zápolay assumed the name Johann I. contemporaries described the political situation following the Battle of Mohács as unruly. There was much fighting between the followers of the two kings. The nobility often changed allegiances. But this restive era cannot be seen as a single civil war. Although the Ottomans no longer posed a threat, they remained a military presence.

The Comitat of Szerém on Hungary’s southern border (today’s Croatia and Serbia) was occupied by Turkish troops. In 1529 Sultan Suleiman’s army crossed the Hungarian border to lay siege to Vienna. At the same time, King Johann, with the help of the Sultan, conquered great parts of the country from Ferdinand. Thanks to the Treaty of Olomouc/Olmütz been signed by Matthias Corvinus and Wladislav/ Vladislav, he was also titular ruler of the other countries comprising the Bohemian realm - Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia/Lausitz. But in reality, Ferdinand ruled these countries.

According to Turkish historians, King Johann kissed the hand of Sultan Suleiman in the Sultan’s tent on the battlefield of Mohács. Suleiman’s representative, the Venetian Alviso Gritti joined the king’s government as treasurer. Ferdinand ruled only a small part of the kingdom as the Turks threatened both Croatia and Slovenia and the county’s western border. There were two parallel governments. The subjects of each king had their own diet. In this conflict the Turks sided with King Johann. In the fall of 1530 negotiations between Ferdinand and Johann again resumed, and the war started again. As the ambassadors negotiated the peace at Posen(Poznan, Poland), helped by the mediation of King Sigismund of Poland and of Duke George of Saxony. In October 1530 Ferdinand’s general William of Rogendorf (Wilhelm), led an army of ten thousand men against Buda. He conquered Gran(Esztergom) and Vishegrád and laid siege to the capital for two months. The defenders of Buda were led by King Johann and Griti. In Rogendorf ‘s army comprised Hungarians, Germans, Austrians, Bohemians, and Spaniards. Buda was defended by Hungarians, Serbians and Turks. An outbreak of the plague among his army and news of the imminent arrival of a Turkish relief army persuaded Rogendorf to lift the siege and retreat. King Johann appointed Gritti as governor. This appointment broke with tradition because the king was of age. In 1531 the royal parties negotiated an armistice. The country remained divided. Kings Ferdinand and Johann only concluded a peace in 1533 ,but the country did not enjoy peace for a long time. In 1541 Buda/Ofen and central Hungary were occupied by the Turks; Transylvania was turned into an Ottoman vassal state.

István Tringli

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